Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structures in the micro- and nano-range allows a new degree of freedom to the design of materials by tailoring desired material properties and, thus, obtaining a superior functionality. Such complex designs are only possible using novel fabrication techniques with high resolution, even in the nanoscale range. The objective of this work is to explore different possibilities for new ways to microstructure polymer materials employing Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP). Single and multi-scaled (hierarchical structures) with distinctive isotropic and anisotropic surface properties are introduced. Depending on the used laser processing conditions, the type of material as well as the spatial period of the interference pattern, four different structuring mechanisms can be identified. In general, the use of ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths leads to direct ablation of the material surface. On the other hand, infra-red (IR) wavelengths can be used to induced different effects such local swelling when laser energy densities below the threshold values are used. The treated surfaces are investigated using confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and focus ion beam and as a result from the experimental data analysis, the developed model predicts the material surface topography after the patterning process, by means of a set of material-dependent coefficients. As example of possible applications, the water contact angle, optical performance for decoration as well as writing encrypted information for anti-counterfeiting are investigated.