Nanostructured materials are in the forefront of materials science due to their unique properties. The type and densities of lattice defects (e.g., vacancies, dislocations and twin faults) have a significant effect on some important properties, such as electrical and corrosion resistance, yield strength and ductility of nanomaterials . The processing conditions of these materials influence their lattice defect structure, therefore the properties of nanostructured materials can be tailored by an appropriate selection of the production methodology. In this study, the correlation between the processing conditions and the defect structure is overviewed for nanomaterials processed by either bottom-up production methods (such as sintering of nanopowders or electrodeposition) or top-down routes (i.e., by severe plastic deformation techniques). The defect structure is studied by electron microscopy and X-ray line profile analysis. The latter method is very effective in studying the density and arrangement of dislocations, as well as the twin-fault probability . The effect of additives and alloying elements on the defect structure is discussed in detail. The influence of post-processing annealing on the lattice defects is also investigated in this presentation. The correlation between the defect structure and the mechanical performance is studied for nanomaterials processed by both bottom-up and top-down techniques.
 J. Gubicza: Defect Structure and Properties of Nanomaterials, 2nd and Extended Edition, Woodhead Publishing, an imprint of Elsevier, Duxford, UK, (2017)
 J. Gubicza: X-ray line profile analysis in Materials Science, IGI-Global, Hershey, PA, USA, (2014).