In the last years, the use of magnetism in Tissue Engineering (TE) has been proposed in the literature as magnetic scaffolds are able not only to support tissue regeneration, but they can activate and work like a magnet attracting functionalized magnetic nanoparticles injected close to the scaffolds enhancing tissue regeneration [1,2]. Bioactive glass (BG) is one interesting material in TE because of its high biocompatibility; bioactivity and the ability to induce osteogenic and angiogenic effects. On the other hand, ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the nanometric size are used to mimic natural bone structure. Also, the introduction of Fe in the HAp structure during the synthesis process may improve HAp mechanical properties and confer magnetic properties to the resulting material. Several strategies were used in the literature to develop magnetic scaffolds. The goal of this work was to obtain bioactive glass scaffolds (BGS) with magnetic properties.
BGS was prepared by the foam replica technique . Nanoparticles were obtained by an adaptation of the wet chemical deposition method. Surface modification was produced by dip-coating with different concentration of FeHAp suspensions and different times of exposition.
The microstructure and porosity of the scaffold were observed by SEM; the presence of iron was confirmed by EDS and MP-AES; functional groups were analyzed by FTIR. Bioactivity of the new material was evaluated by mineralization assay. Magnetic properties were observed after the coating by magnetic susceptibility and VSM. Laterally, biocompatibility was evaluated in MG-63 cells (after 2 and 7 days in contact) and ST-2 cells (after 2 and 14 days in contact) by WST-8 and LDH assays, cells morphology was observed by SEM.
The obtained results showed that BGS were effectively coated with FeHAp and exhibited magnetic properties. Bioactivity after immersion in SBF was not affected due to the presences of FeHAp. Differences in biocompatibility of MG-63 and ST-2 cells were not observed between scaffolds before and after coating with FeHAp. The obtained results clearly suggest that FeHAp-coated scaffolds are a potential biomaterial for bone tissue repair.